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A uterine polyp, also known simply as a "polyp," is a growth that occurs in the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium). These growths are typically noncancerous (benign) and are made up of tissue similar to that of the uterine lining. Uterine polyps can vary in size and may range from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They can occur as a single growth or as multiple polyps.

Key characteristics and information about uterine polyps include:

Cause

The exact cause of uterine polyps is not always clear, but they are thought to result from an overgrowth of the endometrial tissue. Hormonal imbalances, such as an excess of estrogen relative to progesterone, may contribute to their development.

Symptoms

Many women with uterine polyps do not experience any symptoms, and the polyps are often discovered incidentally during a pelvic exam or imaging study. However, when symptoms do occur, they may include:

  • Abnormal uterine bleeding, including heavy or prolonged menstrual periods.
  • Irregular menstrual bleeding between periods (intermenstrual bleeding).
  • Vaginal bleeding after menopause (postmenopausal bleeding).
  • Pelvic pain or discomfort, especially during menstruation.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of uterine polyps is typically made through a combination of medical history, pelvic examination, and imaging tests, such as transvaginal ultrasound or hysterosonography.

Treatment

Hysteroscopic Polypectomy

This minimally invasive procedure involves the removal of the polyps through a hysteroscope inserted through the cervix and into the uterus.

Hormonal Medications

In some cases, hormonal medications may be prescribed to shrink or control the growth of uterine polyps.

- Prognosis

The prognosis for uterine polyps is generally favorable, especially when they are detected and treated early. Removal of polyps often results in symptom relief and a resolution of abnormal bleeding patterns. In most cases, uterine polyps are noncancerous, but it is essential to rule out any malignancy, especially in postmenopausal women or those with other risk factors.

It's important for women who experience abnormal uterine bleeding or other concerning symptoms to seek evaluation and guidance from a healthcare provider. Diagnosing and treating uterine polyps in a timely manner can help prevent complications and improve overall health and quality of life.

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