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Ovarian cystectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of ovarian cysts, which are fluid-filled sacs that can develop on the surface of the ovaries.

 

When it is Performed

Ovarian cystectomy is performed when ovarian cysts are causing symptoms such as irregular cycles, pain, discomfort, or if there is concern about the possibility of cancerous cysts. It may also be done when a cyst is large, persists over time, or if there are fertility concerns.

Purpose Of The Procedure

The primary purposes of ovarian cystectomy are:

Cyst Removal

To remove ovarian cysts that are causing symptoms or concerns.

Fertility

For fertility purposes.

 

Preservation Of Ovary

To preserve the healthy ovarian tissue, which is crucial for hormone production and fertility.

Cancer Evaluation

To assess and remove any cysts that may be cancerous or have the potential to become cancerous.

What is expected to be performed

During ovarian cystectomy:

  • A small incision is made in the abdomen (usually through laparoscopy).
  • The surgeon accesses the ovarian cyst.
  • The cyst is carefully dissected from the ovary, preserving as much healthy ovarian tissue as possible.
  • Any suspicious tissue may be sent for biopsy.
  • The cyst is removed and small incision closed.
  • In addition to the above  mentioned steps, the surgeon may also take any additional measures they deem necessary at that point of time
Anesthesia

General anesthesia is typically administered to ensure the patient is unconscious and pain-free during the procedure.

Incisions

Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy involves making a few small incisions in the abdominal wall to access the surgical area. In some cases, if cysts are huge more than 15 cms and suspicious of cancer an open surgical approach may be necessary, resulting in a larger incision.

Surgical Instruments And Equipment

Instruments used may include laparoscopes, trocars, graspers, scissors, and electrosurgical devices to precisely dissect and remove the cyst.

Duration Of Surgery

The length of surgery varies depending on factors such as cyst size and complexity. Laparoscopic cystectomy typically takes around 30 minutes to 2 hours.

Intraoperative Monitoring

Monitoring equipment, including ECG and blood pressure monitors, is used to ensure the patient's safety during the surgery.

Potential Complications

Potential complications may include:

  • Bleeding during or after surgery.
  • Infection at incision sites.
  • Injury to adjacent structures (rare).
  • Recurrence of cysts.
  • Scar tissue formation.
  • Ovarian damage, affecting fertility (in rare cases).

Expected Outcomes

Expected outcomes of ovarian cystectomy include:

  • Relief from symptoms caused by the cyst.
  • Preservation of healthy ovarian tissue and its function, for fertility.
  • Biopsy and evaluation of any suspicious tissue for cancer.

– Alternatives to Surgery

Alternatives may include watchful waiting (monitoring the cyst), medical management, or aspiration (draining) of the cyst fluid. The choice depends on the cyst type, size, and patient's condition.

– Scarring

Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy typically results in small, discreet scars at the incision sites, which may fade over time.

Post-Operative Care

Post-operative care includes:

  • Pain management.
  • Activity restrictions, particularly avoiding heavy lifting and strenuous exercise.
  • Follow-up appointments for monitoring and assessment.
  • Instructions for incision care and any prescribed medications.

– Hospital Stay

Most ovarian cystectomies are performed as outpatient procedures, and patients can often go home on the same day.

Recovery Time

Recovery time varies but typically follows this pattern:

  1. Immediate recovery: Patients may experience discomfort and fatigue.
  2. Return to light activities: Usually within a few days to a week.
  3. Full recovery: Over several weeks.

Patients should follow their healthcare provider's guidance for a successful recovery, including activity restrictions and attending follow-up appointments. The exact recovery time depends on individual factors and the specific procedure performed.

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