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Ovarian cystic torsion, also known simply as ovarian torsion, is a surgical emergency that occurs when an ovary and the cyst or mass it contains become twisted, cutting off the blood supply to the ovary. Ovarian cystic torsion can cause severe abdominal pain and, if not promptly treated, can lead to tissue damage, ovarian necrosis (tissue death), and the loss of the affected ovary. Here are some key points to understand about ovarian cystic torsion:

Causes

Ovarian Cysts

The condition often occurs in women who have ovarian cysts, which are fluid-filled sacs that can form on or within the ovaries.

Size and Weight

Larger ovarian cysts are more prone to torsion, as they have more potential to twist.

Symptoms

  • Sudden, Severe Abdominal Pain

    This is the most common and characteristic symptom of ovarian torsion. The pain is often intense and can be on one side of the lower abdomen.

  • Nausea and Vomiting

    Due to the severe pain, some women may experience nausea and vomiting.

  • Fever

    In some cases, there may be a low-grade fever.

Diagnosis

Medical History and Physical Examination

The healthcare provider will take a medical history and perform a physical examination, focusing on abdominal tenderness.

 

Imaging

Ultrasound or other imaging tests may be performed to visualize the ovaries and assess blood flow to the affected ovary. The absence of blood flow is a strong indicator of torsion.

Treatment

Ovarian cystic torsion is a medical emergency, and treatment is necessary to save the affected ovary and relieve pain. Treatment options include:

Surgery

Most cases require surgical intervention to detangle and untwist the affected ovary. The surgeon may also assess the ovarian cyst and decide to remove ovarian cyst.

Oophoropexy

In some cases, especially if the patient wishes to preserve fertility, the surgeon may perform an oophoropexy, which is a procedure to secure the ovary in place to prevent future torsion.

Medical management

In some cases partial torsion & ultrasound scan showed blood supply to ovary is good and some times there will be torsion & de-torsion sequence happens on its own.

Complications

If left untreated, ovarian cystic torsion can lead to serious complications, including :

  • Ovarian necrosis (tissue death) in the affected ovary.
  • Infection if the necrotic tissue becomes infected.
  • The loss of the affected ovary, which can impact fertility.

Prevention

There is no foolproof way to prevent ovarian cystic torsion, but women with known ovarian cysts should be aware of the symptoms and seek prompt medical attention if they experience sudden, severe abdominal pain.

If you suspect you have ovarian cystic torsion or are experiencing severe abdominal pain, it is essential to seek immediate medical care. Early intervention can greatly improve outcomes and may help preserve the affected ovary.

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